BNR igiye guhindura uburyo yakoreshaga mu gucunga politiki y’ifaranga

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu (BNR) guhera muri Mutarama 2019 izatangira gukoresha uburyo bushya bushingiye ku nyungu fatizo mu gukurikirana no gucunga neza politiki y’ifaranga.

Politiki y’ifaranga igamije gukumira ihindagurika n’ubwiyongere bikabije ry’ibiciro ku isoko.

Mu gucunga politiki y’ifaranga ku Isi hakoreshwa uburyo bubiri. Ubwa mbere ni ubushingiye ku nyungu fatizo ya banki nkuru (Price Based Monetary policy Framework) n’ubushingiye ku ngano y’amafaranga ari mu gihugu (Monetary targeting framework).

Mu myaka ishize, BNR yifashishishaga uburyo bushingiye ku ngano y’amafaranga ari mu gihugu. Bwifashishwa mu bihugu akenshi bifite urwego rw’imari rutaragera ku ntera abaturage babasha kubona uburyo bunyuranye bwo kwizigamira ndetse no guhabwa inguzanyo.

Hifashishijwe ubwo buryo, BNR yabashije gutuma ibiciro ku masoko bitarenga 6.1 % hagati ya 1997 na 2017.

Ku wa Gatanu w’icyumweru gishize, Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, John Rwangombwa yabwiye abanyamakuru ko uburyo bifashishaga bugiye guhinduka, hagakoreshwa ubushingiye ku nyungu fatizo ya banki nkuru.

Yagize ati “Icyo twakoraga mbere, twarebaga ingano y’amafaranga ari mu baturage, twabona agiye kuba menshi tukayakuramo twabona agiye kuba make tukongera. Iyo ari menshi tugurisha impapuro zacu tukayakuramo, iyo abaye make ya yandi twaguze turayareka agasubiramo.”

Umuyobozi Mukuru ushinzwe Ubukungu muri BNR, Prof Kigabo Thomas yavuze ko uburyo bushingiye ku nyungu fatizo ari bwo basanze bujyanye n’igihe bakurikije aho ubukungu n’urwego rw’imari mu Rwanda bihagaze.

Ati “Uko urwego rw’imari rugenda rutera imbere ku buryo abatuye igihugu babasha kubona uburyo bunyuranye bwo kwizigamira no guhabwa inguzanyo, icyo gihe guhitamo uburyo runaka bwo gukoresha biterwa n’inyungu ubikora avanamo.”

“Bityo banki nkuru ikoresha inyungu fatizo yayo kugira ngo ihe icyerekezo cy’inyungu ku mafaranga, binafashe abatuye igihugu gufata ibyemezo mu kuzigama no gushora imari mu bikorwa bitandukanye bishingiye ku makuru afatika.”

Kigabo yavuze ko kuri ubu, umunyarwanda asigaye afata amafaranga ye akayashora ahantu bitewe n’inyungu abonamo, bitandukanye na mbere yabitswaga muri banki z’ubucuruzi gusa.

Yatanze ingero z’aho amafaranga asigaye ashorwa mu mpapuro mpeshamwenda n’ibindi.

Kuva impapuro mpeshamwenda zatangira kujya ku isoko ry’u Rwanda, ubwitabire bw’ibigo bitari banki bwavuye wavuye kuri 48.3% mu Ukuboza 2014 bugera kuri 54.9% mu mpera za Kamena 2018. Naho ku bantu ku giti cyabo, umugabane wabo wavuye kuri 1.6% mu Ukuboza 2014 ugera kuri 9.0% mu mpera za Kamena 2018.

Inyungu iri mu gukoresha inyungu fatizo ya Banki Nkuru

Mu gihugu urwego rw’imari rumaze gutera imbere, Inyungu fatizo ya banki nkuru igira uruhare rukomeye mu mikorere y’urwego rw’imari, ubukungu n’ibindi.

Nk’iyo BNR igabanyije inyungu fatizo yayo, iba yereka amabanki y’ubucuruzi ko afite inyungu mu gutanga inguzanyo ku bayagana kurusha gucuruzanya na Banki Nkuru. Ibyo bituma amabanki ayoboka mu baturage kuko ariho yunguka, muri rubanda amafaranga akaboneka n’ibikorwa by’iterambere bikaba byinshi.

Mu gihe amafaranga ari mu baturage ari menshi ku buryo ashobora guteza ikibazo nko kuzamuka kw’ibiciro, Banki Nkuru yongera inyungu fatizo noneho amabanki akajyanayo amafaranga kubera ko ariho yunguka menshi kurusha kuyajyana mu baturage.

Inyungu fatizo kandi ifasha mu buryo amabanki agurizanya hagati yayo, bikayafasha gucunga neza amafaranga.

Ubucuruzi bw’impapuro mpeshamwenda nabwo buhinduka bushingiye ku nyungu fatizo ya BNR iba yashyizeho.

Prof Kigabo yavuze ko ubu buryo bushya buzafasha abaturage kwihitiramo uburyo bwiza bwo kwizigamira hashingiwe ku nyungu babonamo.

Ati “Bizafasha gushyigikira gahunda za Leta zo kuzamura kwizigamira ndetse n’ishoramari mu Rwanda, ibyo bigire ingaruka nziza ku bukungu bw’igihugu.”

Guhera mu Ukuboza 2017, inyungu fatizo ya BNR yashyizwe kuri 5.5 % ivuye kuri 6 %.